A bit of Arab history
A bit of Arab history, for the curious ones.
Muhammad was born by the end of the 6th century, and in the 7th century founded the Islamic religion. This unified the whole of the Arab peninsula, which then went on a conquering spree all over the north of Africa, and almost Europe. (I already mentioned that from 611 to 1492 there was a war in Spain against the more invaders, which the Catholic kings won). While the whole of Europe was engulfed in the Middle Ages, which were a time of cultural, economic and social stagnation, the Arab kingdom was on the rise. They established the Caliphates, monarchies all in unity with the Islamic community, Ummah, with the same religion and culture. In order these were, the Four Orthodox Caliphates, elected by the religious community, Omeya Caliphate, with its capital in Damascus, Abbasi Caliphate, bringing the Islamic religion to the east, Fatimi Caliphate, with its capital in Cairo, Caliphate of Cordoba or Al-Andalus, located in Spain, and the Ottoman Caliphate.
Yes, the one who blocked trade routes in the 15th century, invaded the decaying Byzantine empire through the Anatolia peninsula and the one from Assassin’s Creed. The Ottoman empire grew to its time of splendor in the 15th century, by the end of the 17th century the Ottoman empire had begun decaying, and by WWI it couldn’t hold together. And it wasn’t until the 19th century that Europe started recolonizing the North of Africa. The Ottoman empire finally collapsed in 1924, and became the Republic of Turkey. Egypt was of the English, Morroco was of the Spanish and French, Western Sahara of the Spanish, Mauritania of the French, Libya of the Italians, Northern Sudan of the English, Syria of the French, Lebanon of the French, Jordanian of the English, Iraq of the English, Somalia of the Italians, French and English.
After 1924, all the countries started a process of independence that led to the organization they have today, as of 1945. Even though, in the next decades they would all suffer coups and state of emergency declaration which would help the rules perpetuate their rule and lead, ultimately, to the Arab Spring.
Comments and questions are really welcome!
Egyptian Revolution (2011)
The Egyptian Revolution of 2011 was an uprising that began the 25 of January of 2011.
Hosni Mubarak became the President of Egypt after the 1981 assassination of President Anwar El Sadat. With his National Democratic Party he maintained an authoritarian rule because they were always in a state of emergency, which was enacted after the Six-day war in 1967. This state of emergency increased police powers, allowed censorship, suspended constitutional rights, and allowed the imprisonment of people without reason. This was supported by the U.S. in exchange of suppression of Islamic militants.
The revolution was caused by police brutality, since they had extended powers and tortures were reported; electoral fraud, since Mubarak won the elections that were accused to be rigged and everyone who would vote against was suppressed; political censorship, caused by the state of emergency laws; high unemployment, food price inflation and low minimum wages, including rising corruption within government officials.
The revolution was constituted by riots, strikes, civil disobedience and resistance, among others. Although there were clashes between rioters and police which left some injured, there was no war. In this way they gained the resignation of President Mubarak and Prime Ministers Nazif and Shafik, the security that Gamal Mubarak, Mubarak’s son which had been preparing to be his successor, would not run for president, assumption of power by the Armed Forces, dissolution of the NDP, disbanding of the Parliament, prosecution of the Mubarak’s and the Prime Ministers and the disbanding of State Security Investigations Service.
The revolutions are still not over, since they are now worried that the military reign will be there indefinitely. Any questions?
Arab Spring is a revolutionary wave of protests occurring in the Arab world, beginning on Saturday, 18 of December of 2010. In those revolutions we find some in Tunisia, Libya, Iraq, Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, Egypt, Bahrain, Syria, Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, Lebanon, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Israel and Western Sahara. These revolts have shared similar techniques in raising awareness of state attempts at repression and censorship.
These revolts were also inspired by government corruption, dictatorships, repression, poverty, unemployment, among others. The decline of economy and food security has also been a strong reason for this. Also the increasing education and lack of reform in the government.
The story surrounding the Arab Spring is extensive, so if you are inclined to know especially of one of those I will gladly discuss it as soon as possible. I will also gladly answer any question, even if its unrelated, here.
I will still discuss most of the history, but that will take a while. So I ask you to be a little patient.