Puerto Rico History III
Juan Ponce de Leon, a fortune-seeking Spaniard, Hidalgo noble with no fortune, started colonization in Puerto Rico in 1508, taking Diego Colon (Cristopher’s son) out of the scheme. Juan Ponce de Leon had fought in the Reconquista, in Granada. He had worked in the Dominican Republic, in the Villa de Salvaleon, where he had stopped indigenous rebellions and learned their language. He established the first settlement in Puerto Rico, Caparra. And was sent here by Juan Ceron, governor at that time of La Espanola.
The problem was, Caparra was marshy, and there were a lot of mosquitoes there. Tainos took care of these mosquitoes with special oils, but since Spaniards didn’t know about them, they started moving the city after its completion in 1509 to the San Juan Bay. There it stood until 1521.
In 1509, the Villa de Sotomayor was established, founded by Cristobal de Sotomayor. It was located at the west of Puerto Rico, where now stands Cabo Rojo. In 1510, to 1520, started the allotment of Tainos, by Juan Ponce de Leon, called the Repartimiento. They were supposed to guarantee their protection, food, clothes and education, but of course they didn’t, and the Tainos became slaves.
In 1511, Agueybana (a cacique from Guanica) rebelled against the Spaniards, in what were called the Guasabaras Tainas. He did so because Juan Ponce de Leon had violated the moral contract he had with the Tainos after they had performed the Guaitiao, a ceremony of name exchanging, where they swore peace and friendship (this ceremony was very serious for the Tainos) There died a lot of Taino leaders. By 1520, 80% of the Tainos were dead, and their religion completely forgotten. That’s why, in 1515, africans were brought to Puerto Rico, to work as slaves.
In 1520, La Fortaleza de Santa Catalina started being built, along with the Castillo San Felipe del Morro, and Fort San Geronimo, until their completion in 1533. These forts were built to protect the little island of San Juan.
Please ask, it fun! :)
Puerto Rico History II (Tainos)
We’ve talked about one side of those who make up Puerto Rico, the Spanish. But when they first got here, there were people already living here, the Tainos (the indigenous race). These Tainos came from the Arawaks, and they populated all of the Caribbean Islands. There were Tainos in Puerto Rico, Jamaica and a bit of Cuba. In Cuba were also the Guanahatabeyes, in La Espanola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) were the Macoriges, Ciboyenes and some Tainos.
Before the Tainos became what they were when they were found, they evolved from a different civilization of Igneris, and Sub-Tainos. Taino meant, in their language, “good”, as they were very good people, very friendly, unlike some other indigenous societies. They were organized in Yucayeques, which meant “City of Yuca” (Yuca is a very good viand, know in english as Cassava). They lived off agriculture, in Conucos, where they planted, most of it was Yuca.
Yucayeques were small villages composed of the Batey (central plaza), Barbacoas (guarding posts), Conucos (where they planted), Guatu (central fire), Bohios (houses), and the Caney (house of the Cacique or Guare, leader).
Of course, they lived with social strata. At the top of the pyramid were the Guoxeris, which meant the Cacique and his family. He had absolute power over religious things, political and economical. He declared war, and started the batu (a ball game, and parties)(Tainos loved to party). Mantuheris came next in the pyramid. They were the warriors who also worked on agriculture. The Baharis was composed of the Bohique and his family, he was the medical witch of the tribe. He was the one who started the Cojoba, a ritual where Tainos cleared out their stomachs and inhaled some drug to communicate with the gods. The Naborias were the lowest in society. They were the ones that worked in construction and hunted and fished.
Its very important to know that they celebrated a lot of Areytos (parties) and they were very good and friendly people, as that was one of the things that Puertorican culture adopted for some time. Of course, now they are all a bunch of as*holes as everywhere on Earth, but oh well…
Please, ask questions, it pleases me. :)
Puerto Rico History
To know Puertorican history, you must first know a bit of background history from Spain. At the start of the VII Century, Spain was undergoing a bit of a civil war. It started when in 611 a.D. Muslims invaded Spain. The Arabs had a constant war with Spanish Christians until the time of the Reconquest. In January 2th 1492, Christians at last won the war, after vanishing the last more king (Boabdil) from Granada.
In 1469, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile married and established the Tribunal of the Holy Inquisition, and started to win the war against the Arabs. And they united Castile and Aragon to form Spain!
You must know that since 1485, a Genovese explorer, called Christophorus Colombus (Cristopher Colombus, or Cristobal Colo’n)(born in 1451) wanted to explore the other side of the Earth in search of a route connecting to the Indies, since after the end of the Mongol Peace, the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the Ottoman Turks Invasion, the route for all those spices was cut off, the “Silk Road”. Christopher looked for help form the king of Portugal, Henry, but was rejected.
Also, you must know that this was a time were a lot of advances in maritime travel were made. This was possible thanks to a Portuguese named Henry the Navigator, who founded the School of Navigation of Sagres.
So, Colombus seeked an audience with a lot of kings, but they all rejected him. It wasn’t until April 1492, that the Christian Kings of Spain, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile, agreed. They signed the Capitulations of Santa Fe, where the Kings agreed to name Colombus viceroy of all the land he found, 8% of all possessions found, and agreed to let his kids inherit that.
In his first voyage, he took 3 ships, La Nina, La Pinta and La Santa Maria. They reached America October 12th 1492, passing by Guanahani (San Salvador), Cuba and La Espanola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Then, in Tortuga (close to Haiti), La Nina crashes, and the Fort of Nativity is built. December 24th 1492.
August 1493, the Kings authorized a second voyage, and he took more ships and men to populate the land. It wasn’t until November 19th 1493 that he discovered Boriquen, later named San Juan Bautista, and know named Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico.
June 7th 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed, where Portugal and Spain divided the Earth between them, with the Church’s consent.
After the third a fourth voyage, the Kings took away all he had and imprisioned him, later liberating him until his death, obviously his kids gained nothing. This as because the Kings thought that that was too much power and money for him. :/
This is just the first part. Remember I will always answer questions! Click here!
Puerto Rico Basics
Puerto Rico! By the way, I deleted the post about Bomba, its pitiful. I just found a book about folkloric music, and will educate myself better. :)
This post is about Puerto Rico basics, political system, geography, language, hidrography, and some other things.
First, in Puerto Rico you can find a common Republican political system. We do not vote for the President, and we choose ourselves our politicians, so I can say we have a direct democracy. The government is divided into three branches; the legislation, a bicameral legislation composed of the House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes) and the Senate (Senado) elected by the people, the executive branch, composed of the governor (Gobernador) and other administrative organizations, and the judicial, composed of the municipal court, supreme court and federal court.
There are 51 representatives in the House of Representatives, the requisites for working as a representative are 25 years of age, to speak at least one of the official languages (Spanish and English) and to have lived in PR the last 2 years. You also have the right to hire 15 advisers. To work in the Senate you need 30 years of age, and to speak one official language. The Senate is composed of 27 senators. To be governor you need 35 years of age, one official language and the last 3 years in PR, apart from a butt-load of charisma.
The Legislation creates the laws, the Executive branch amends them, and the Judicial branch interprets them. You can see an obvious problem here. No education required, just high school. What do you expect? Also, 15 advisers? Seriously? They earn, each of them, more than $80,000 annually. Just 2-3 years in PR, you mean that a Chinese guy (no racism intended, just trying to prove a point) can become governor if he can speak English? You can see where all the deficit comes from. 51 representatives, 15 advisers each, plus 27 senators. (Apart from a lot of other things, obviously).
In Puerto Rico, you can find approximately 88% importation, and almost nothing of export.
I will, talk about geography, climatology and hidrography in the next post. Me tired. G’night. XP
Strange question, but okay. My name is Joshua Joel Montalvo Miranda, and my contributor for this blog (lunaticstefy314) is named Estefania Mercedes Montanez Maymi. Strange surnames, right? I remind you that we’re from Puerto Rico, and here people have two surnames. :/ Strange. :)
Remember you can ask about anything! And the blog is educative, so you can ask educative things too, like things form history, science, literature, politics, economy, anything that comes to mind. Any question that comes to mind, I will find the answer! :)
Hello! I'm from Puerto Rico too. But i will like you to explain or answer, How is the attitued of puertoricans in different topics (sports, politics, arts, etc)??? :)
Second Question! Yes! Thank you Michymercado, for reminding me of that. Some million posts ago I said I would discuss some Puertorican politics, since they are such a big part of our culture!, but I haven’t got to it.
Sorry I took so long, truth is I wrote everything and then my computer crashed and I have to rewrite it again!!! Oh well.
Puertorican politics are one of the biggest parts of our culture, especially now, that elections are coming next year. Puertorican politics are divided in three groups. The first, the PPD, Partido Popular Democratico, are a group that supports the ELA, Estado Libre Asociado, or being a colony of the US if you will. The second, and leading one right now, is the PNP, Partido Nuevo Progresista, a party that believes in being a state of the US, of uniting with the US’s federation, the governor, Luis Fortuno, is a PNP, Republican by the way. The third is the least liked by the common people, the PIP, or Partido Independentista Puertorriqueno, are a party that support the independence of Puerto Rico from the US. Although they are written off every four years because they don’t achieve the minimum 3% to continue, they have strong support from stupid college guys and old and studied idealists. Still, most of them refrain from voting.
In the next year, the governor will face Alejandro Garcia Padilla for the governor’s seat, since he represents the PPD. The race is close, because fanatic PNP are defending the governor but most of them ran to the PPD, since the governor fired approximately 30,000 public workers, to stop the public sector from going bankrupt! The so-called Ley 7!!! The PIP, of course, write in without any hopes of winning.
But! There’s a new party coming the next year! The MUS, Movimiento Union Soberanista. As explained to me by trustful sources, its basically something between the PPD and the PIP. The believe in some kind of separated government and economy from the US, without actually separating from them. I still do not know who will run for it, and how many supporters they have, since they are still not written in, they have to go through a lot of bureaucratic nonsense to get written in.
Still, there’s almost no doubt that either PPD or PNP will win, as always.
And here, some interesting facts, which I will go deeper into later. The first Puertorican governor, Luis Munoz Marin was from the PPD even though he at first was a believer of independence! The debt that Luis Fortuno had to fight off was actually passed down to him by his enemies, the PPD, since they offered a lot of public jobs in the last eight years, with Sila Maria Calderon and Anibal Acevedo Vila, than they could actually afford. But most of this debt is caused by the indiscriminate waste of money in the government, since every legislator in the Camara de Representantes has a right of 15 advisers with full salary! And must I remind you that there are 51 representatives! Do the math, everyone with a salary of approximately $80,000 annual. They don’t even need an education, just 25 years of age and two years in PR! That isn’t even counting the 27 senators, the members of the Judicial branch, and all those unnecessary workers! That is what caused the Ley 7. It even affected us in other ways, like making a rise in illegal drug trade, which made the IVU neccesary so the government could receive some more money, since the illegal trade doesn’t pay taxes, and a rise in criminality, not just by illegal trade but by necessity.
The administration of the idiots also caused massive debts, which in turn made the educational system pay, in the form of college students paying. Everyone in Puerto Rico must have heard of the Huelga en la UP. So now you know why. Politics extend everywhere. Like the beliefs of the politicians in our education, making our education Americanized. You find politics everywhere. :/
If anyone wants me to go deeper into something specific, just ask. I’ve written a lot here. :O
And don’t worry Michy! I will talk about art later! Sports, something, but not much….
La Carreta, Rene Marques
The Oxcart is part of Puertorican canonic literature. Its a play, by Rene Marques, situated in the 1950’s or the Puertorican industrialization. It follows the story of a Puertorican “Jibaro” family, in search of better opportunities. The first act is situated in countryside San Juan (Puertorican capital). The second act in La Perla, Puertorican metropolis of that time in San Juan. The third and final act in the Bronx. The play talks about a lot of Puertorican culture and history, that is why I have waited until the Puertorican post to begin talking about Puertorican canonic literature. If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask.
As I want you all to know, I live in Puerto Rico. First of all, I want you all to know that we are a United States colony, situated in the Caribbean. We’re small, 111 X 39 square miles. If you still don’t know, you can find us between the Dominican Republic and very large group of small islands. Some will know of Puerto Rico, because of the big influence we have on New York, were a lot of “newyoricans” live.
I am a patriot, I love Puerto Rico, for all the small reasons you may love your country. I love its rich culture, I love its tropical climate, I love its geography, everything. But if you’ve spoken to a Puertorican before, you will see they hate the government. Its part of the culture to be a political fanatic.
I have therefore decided to share my country with all everyone willing to read it. I will talk about culture, music, dances, history, contemporary events, works of art, literature, politics, economy, geography.
I will start by telling you the basics. The Island was discovered by Christopher Colombus, the 19th of November of 1493. Just at the time the rest of America was discovered. Its climate is tropical, a very irregular geography, full of mountains. The official language is Spanish, which is now more of Spanglish (mixture of Spanish and English) since the other official language is English. The form of government is a democratic republic. Nothing really maintains our economy, which explains the poor economy, but that is a topic for another post.
The most popular music and dances are Salsa, Merengue, Bachata, and more modernly Reggaeton. The public education is quite bad, but the private one is very good. The leading religion is catholic. We have no definitive physical traits, since we are a very big mixture of people. Puertorican attitude is very interesting, but I will also explain that later. Our current governor is Luis Fortuno, really hated by the people.
If you have any suggestions for the second post of Puerto Rico, please tell me. And any other question or doubt! Click click click.
If you by any chance are a fan of Spanish literature I strongly recommend you to see a certain blog. The blog is run by Estarera, from Puerto Rico.